The most important technical terms relating to electromobility!
Alternating current is the type of electricity commonly used in households, which is typically found in low-voltage networks in Europe. In addition, this current can be used to charge electric vehicles. However, the alternating current cannot be stored directly in the battery in the car, which is why an on-board charger converts the alternating current from the grid into direct current. The conversion allows the electricity to be stored and used in the vehicle batteries. Depending on the on-board charger installed, the charging power is limited to a maximum of 43 kW, which is why mainly AC charging columns are used as wallboxes in private use. Due to the low charging power, charging must take place over a longer period of time, which is why customers at home are more flexible with regard to the charging process. Due to the financial framework and the size of the on-board charger installed in the e-vehicle, the maximum possible power conversion in the car is the limiting factor here.
An accumulator is a rechargeable storage element for electrical energy.
Unit of electronic current
Autonomous driving is the term for fully automated driving for which a person is no longer needed.
The backend comes from information technology, is a part of an IT system and is the counterpart to the front end. The term covers all activities carried out in the background, such as the processing of data in the background in software.
A battery is a non-rechargeable electrochemical energy storage device.
Battery management system
The BMS is used to protect, regulate and monitor accumulators.
Battery electric vehicles
Battery electric vehicles have an electric motor and generate their energy from a battery located in the vehicle, which can be recharged using electricity.
occupational saftey regulation A3
The BGV A3 designates a legal regulation that must be taken into account before commissioning and guarantees the safety of electrical systems and equipment in public facilities and companies.
In bidirectional charging, electricity can be charged in both directions. For electric mobility, for example, the process means that a car can charge electricity from a charging station and also feed it back. However, bidirectional charging is only supported by certain charging stations and wallboxes.
The building code defines all legal information about general urban planning law/building planning law that applies to the Federal Republic of Germany. The book is divided into four chapters, which are subdivided into the following topics:
1. general urban planning law
2. special urban planning law
3. other regulations
4. transitional and final provisions
Carsharing refers to the use of a vehicle by different people. In most cases, the owners are car sharing companies that rent out the respective vehicles.
Combined charging system plug
The CCS plug is an extension of the Type 2 plug with two additional power contacts, which is why it is also known as the "Combo 2 plug". This plug corresponds to the European standard, whereby the charging method and the plug variants are standardized. This combination plug can be used to charge with direct or alternating current, as the connector is divided into two sections. The upper section is a Type 2 connector, which can be used for charging with alternating current, and the lower section is used when charging with direct current. Because of this structure, a CCS connector can be used with two different types of connectors (DC or AC cables) when the connector is in the car. However, if the CCS connector is installed in the charging pole, charging is only possible with the associated cable. The maximum power is determined by the design and characteristics of the battery, which is a limiting factor. In addition, the charge level and the temperature have an influence on the charging power, which may be reduced as a result. The maximum possible power at charging stations is currently 450 kW, and this figure is rising. However, since the limiting factor is the car batteries, normal charging points with 50 kW and fast charging points with up to 160 kW can be found in practice.
Declaration of conformity
The declaration of conformity presupposes that a product meets the essential safety requirements.
The blue, single-phase CEE plug is mainly used for connecting mobile homes at campsites, which is why it is also called the camping plug. With this plug, unlike the SchuKo plug, there is no risk of a cable burning, so longer charging times are not a problem. This allows charging at 230 V and 3.7 kW until the battery is fully charged. However, a wallbox with another more powerful plug version is usually connected, which is why the relevance of the CEE plug cannot be considered very high.
Charge de move plug
The CHAdeMO plug was developed by Tepco, a Japanese energy company, together with various Japanese vehicle manufacturers. This direct current fast charging system enables a charging power of up to 100 kW, although in practice only a power of 50 kW is found at the charging stations. It is predominantly Japanese cars and older models that are equipped with a CHAdeMO connector. The plug is also compatible with some Tesla models, although an additional adapter is required. However, European charging stations increasingly rarely support this plug connection, as current developments show that the CSS plug will displace the CHAdeMO plug in the long run.
Charging infrastructure is the term used to describe a specific area that is equipped with charging columns. This could be an entire country or just a specific region. A well-developed LI plays a major role in terms of electromobility, as it creates the offer to easily charge an electric car on the road. The current charging infrastructure in Germany now counts over 25,000 charging stations, which are located throughout the country.
A charging plug is the plug needed to charge an electrically powered device. The different types of plugs for the alternating current are the type 1, type 2 and type 3A/C. For direct current, there are the CHAdeMO and Combined Charging System plug systems. Other plug types are the SchuKo plug, as a conventional household plug, and the CEE as a camping plug. In electromobility, the Europe-wide standard is now the Type2 plug for alternating current and the CSS for charging with direct current. Standards vary between European, Asian and American electric vehicles.
A charging point defines the connection at which an electric vehicle is charged at the selected charging station. One electric vehicle can be charged per charging point. If two charging points are available at one charging station, two electric vehicles can also be charged simultaneously.
The charging power is specified in kW and describes the electrical power with which the battery of an electric vehicle is charged. Thus, a higher charging power ensures a faster charging time. The charging power can be influenced by different factors such as temperature or the condition of the battery.
A charging station is a device designed for charging electric vehicles and usually has several charging points. A charging station could also be described as a "gas station for electric vehicles" and it is also often designed after the design of a gas pump.
Charging station ordinance
The charging station ordinance sets out guidelines for the construction of public charging stations. Thus, all operators of charging stations are affected by the ordinance. The ordinance addresses the topics of payment and billing or the obligation to notify.
The charging time describes the time still needed to charge something. This could be the battery of an electric vehicle, for example.
The following formula is used to calculate the charging time: Battery capacity in kWh / charging power in kW = charging time in h.
Since the required charging time depends on the particular charging option, you should choose it after considering your available time.
Depending on how much time you have available, the choice falls, for example, on a wallbox or a charging column.
The circuit breaker is a protective device that can be found in wallboxes, for example. It serves as a fuse and protects cables from heat damage caused by excessive power.
Conductive charging is also known as wired charging and is the most common and important charging technology. It transfers energy through physically connected and conductive materials.
For electric vehicles, conductive charging is performed by connecting a cable with the appropriate plug towards the respective power grid.
For a general overview, four charging modes have been recorded in the IEC 618112 standard. The first to third sections deal with charging with alternating current (AC) and the fourth with charging with direct current (DC).
Construction cost subsidy
The construction cost subsidy is a one-time payment to the network operator if the network connection exceeds the value of 30 kW. It is thus mostly found in companies and not in private households. In this way, the consumer assumes part of the costs for the expansion or new construction of the power grid in the respective construction area. The amount of the payment depends on the desired grid connection capacity. The formula for calculating the construction cost subsidy is: Total power (kW) - 30 (kW) x construction cost subsidy price (€/kW)
The required construction cost subsidy price can be found in a so-called construcion cost subsidy price sheet of the respective network operator.
Charge Point Operator
The CPO can be the owner or lessee of a charging pole and is responsible for the installation, operation, service and maintenance of the charging station. In addition, he is liable for ensuring that at no time does the charging pole pose a danger. Regular maintenance of the electrical equipment by the CPO can prevent or eliminate potential electrical and fire accidents. In addition, the CPO must procure electricity for the charging pole and ensure access to the charging pole. Authentication and payment at a charging pole is done through a mobility service provider, which is also known as a roaming provider. It is also possible for the CPO to act as an MSP as well.
With DC charging, unlike AC charging, the current does not change direction during transmission because no change in polarity occurs. This is possible because the transformation of alternating current to direct current is not performed in the car, but directly in the charging station. As a result, the charged current is passed directly to the vehicle's batteries. This faster alternative to AC charging enables high charging powers of up to 300 kW, which is why the charging process is completed in just a few minutes. For this reason, DC fast charging stations are found where there is only a short standing time, for example at gas stations. For private use, however, DC charging columns are not an economically relevant alternative, as the investment and subsequent installation are associated with high costs. In addition, a considerable power output of up to 500 amperes is required, which is why the charging process must be well secured. If used improperly, for example, it can lead to battery overheating or a cable fire. In addition, private households cannot provide this charging power, as usually only 63 amps are available. Because of these aspects, fast-charging columns tend to be installed in public areas.
German satutory accident insurance
The DGUV refers to the umbrella organization of the accident insurance funds and the commercial employers' liability insurance associations. The association is based in Berlin and is responsible for the rehabilitation, compensation and prevention of persons in the event of accidents that have occurred. With regard to the topic of electromobility, the DGUV supports users as well as associations in spreading the thama of e-mobility through information pamphlets, seminars and advice to manufacturers.
German institute for standardization
DIN is an institute for standardization worldwide, which publishes standards that ensure the standardization of matrial and immaterial objects. The institute was founded in 1917 under the name "Standards Committee for Mechanical Engineering". The published standards of the German Institute for Standardization are recommendations and therefore not mandatory. An application for standardization can generally be made by anyone who submits a substantiated standardization application with concrete proposals. The different standards are identified by the DIN number, the structure of which usually consists of DIN + standard number.
Basic Data Protection Regulation
The DSGVO replaced the EU Data Protection Directive in 1995 and lays down clear rules for the processing of personal data within the EU single market.
The e-fleet refers to a suitable infrastructure with a fleet that consists exclusively or also to a large extent of electric vehicles.
This electrified fleet would not only bring benefits to the environment, but also ensure a reduction in costs.
E-roaming is similar to roaming in the cell phone sector for mobile network subscribers. E-roaming refers to the connection of the authentication and payment process of different charging stations as a data exchange system, so that you are not tied to only one provider and can charge your vehicle independently. The goal is to offer customers a Europe-wide simple and uncomplicated use of charging stations despite different providers.
An EFK is a person who is allowed to plan, supervise and execute electrotechnical tasks. In Germany, this person has to comply with the following standards:
- DIN VDE 1000-10 VDE 1000-10
- DIN EN 50110-1 VDE 0105-1
- DGUV regulation 3
Electric Vehicle Operator
In most cases, the EVO is the operator of a fleet. This can be, for example, a company that is legally responsible for its fleet as the vehicle operator. Alternatively, the responsibility and associated duties can be transferred to a separate fleet manager, and this is always the case for larger companies. An EVO can therefore take various forms and is thus a natural or legal person.
Electromobility describes the use of electrically powered means of transport. The biggest advantage is climate-friendly mobility. Above all, the connection between electric vehicles and regeneratively generated electricity ensures significantly lower CO2 emissions, air pollutants and noise.
The Electromobility Act was introduced in 2015 and aims to promote electromobility by offering different benefits and privileges for electric vehicles. The EmoG is divided into three core areas:
- Scope of application
- Privileges for e-vehicles
- E-license plate
Benefits for electric vehicles defined in the EmoG include driving in bus lanes, securing parking spaces with charging stations in public areas, or reducing/remitting parking fees. To identify eligible vehicles, a special license plate with the special letter "E" or a sticker for vehicles registered abroad will be installed. By 2030, electric vehicles should be established in the market
The EMP/ESP/MSP do not have their own charging infrastructure, but are companies that provide and operate access to charging stations from other different CPO's. This means that they rent the charging services and provide them to their customers, for example by providing access to charging stations via charging cards or apps. This is usually done via an e-roaming platform provided by the RNO. Subsequent billing then takes place between the CPO provider and the EMP/ESP.
The EN denotes a defined standard that has been developed and approved by one of the three European committees for standardization (CEN = European Committee for Standardization; CENELEC = European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization; ETSI = European Telecommunications Standards Institute). A European standard must go through a public standardization process before it is created. The application of European standards is not mandatory but voluntary. The designations of the standards are to be provided with the respective year of origin or update, since the standards must be reviewed and, if necessary, updated every five years.
Energy density refers to the distribution of energy over a given unit of mass (MJ per Kg) or volume (MJ per L).
The formula for energy density is: w = dE/dX.
For electric vehicles, accumulators/batteries with a high energy density are important to achieve the longest possible range.
Engineering, Procurement and Construction
The EPC acts as a general contractor or general transferee and is responsible for handling construction projects. This form of execution can be assigned to the construction industry and there specifically to plant construction. The international designation EPC describes the players who are responsible for the detailed planning, control, procurement, and execution of the construction and installation work. This also includes turnkey handover on an agreed date and at a generally agreed fixed price. The framework conditions for these projects are laid down in contracts for work and services, which in the international arena are often structured in accordance with FIDIC specifications.
The environmental bonus describes a financial contribution of the federal government, which is to be used for an improvement of the environmental quality. People receive the corresponding subsidy when buying, financing or even leasing an electric vehicle or hybrid. Currently, the maximum amount of the contribution is 6,000 euros for electric vehicles and 4,500 euros for hybrids.
Energy Industry Act
The aim of the EnWg is to provide people with an affordable, secure and environmentally friendly energy supply. The Act is responsible for electricity and gas supply and thus regulates the supply of electricity, natural gas and biogas.
Energy supply company
The EVU is responsible for the supply of electricity and gas. The network operator is responsible for operating the gas and electricity networks instead. For an energy supply company, investing in the installation of charging stations can offer various advantages. For example, in addition to improving its image, the cross-selling option can also have an impact on its earnings situation. The five largest German utilities include RWE, EnBW, E.ON, Vattenfall and EWE, all of which are active in the field of charging infrastructure.
Electrically exited synchronous machine
Compared to the permanently excited synchronous motor, the ESM uses electromagnets, which are responsible for generating a magnetic field.The machines are often found in industry as prime movers.
Ethernet is a data transmission technology for wired data networks, which connects hardware and software. It is currently the most widely used type of LAN (=Local Area Network) and is a copper cable twisted in itself.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
The term EVSE is equivalent to the meaning of the term "charging station
Fuel cell electric vehicles
FCEVs are means of transport that can use hydrogen as an energy source, for example, and generate electrical energy with the help of a fuel cell. The energy thus generated can be converted directly into motion or stored temporarily. Other possible energy sources for a fuel cell vehicle are ammonia or low-molecular alcohols. They are also classified as electric vehicles, since they are propelled by an electric motor.
A major advantage of the means of transport is the short time required for refueling, and another lies in the locally emission-free driving.
Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy
The Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy has its two official seats in Berlin and Bonn. The ministry is headed by Peter Altmaier, who has been a member of the German Bundestag since 1994. The mission of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy is to strengthen the German economy and to secure its international position.
Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure
The Federal Ministra of Transport and Digital Infrastructure has its headquarters in Berlin and a more staffed one in Bonn. It is headed by Anderas Scheuer, who is the current Federal Minister of Transport. The ministry consists of nine departments in total:
- Department Management, Communication
- Central Department
- Department Federal Highways
- Road Traffic Department
- Railroads Department
- Department of Basic Affairs
- Digital Society Division
- Aviation Division
- Division Waterways, Shipping
A full hybrid has an electric motor and a battery, so shorter distances can be covered purely electrically. However, the vehicle cannot be charged but gains its electrical energy through the braking process due to recuperation.
Grid integration is the term for using the local grid to which the particular charging station is currently connected. It also means that the capacity can be organized in connection with the network and the network operator has been informed about the installation. Grid integration is an important aspect in the energy transition, as it allows the respective grid to be used more efficiently.
Global system for Mobile Communication
GSM refers to a standard that is most widely used internationally and provides for fully digital mobile radio networks.
GSM = international standard for digital radio networks.
The GWA is responsible for the safe use and technical operation of an intelligent metering system (iMsy). It either acts as a metering point operator itself or is commissioned as such by a company. To guarantee compliance with all legal and statutory requirements, the GWA must have a certificate from the German Federal Office for Information Security.
house junction box
Through the house junction box, a building is connected to the public power grid. It is called the interface between the public power grid and the consumer's installation and contains the main fuse of the respective building. The box is normally sealed and the fuses may only be pulled by trained personnel.
Hertz describes the unit of frequency and indicates the number of repeating operations per second in a periodic signal.
High power charging
The HPC describes charging systems that can charge an electric vehicle battery quickly and with maximum power. They aim to greatly reduce charging times and mostly operate with direct current. Examples include Tesla's Supercharger, the Combined Charging System or Charge de Move.
High tariff/Low tariff
HT = denotes the high-current rate, which is relatively expensive and located at peak consumption times (more likely during the day)
NT = denotes the low power tariff, which is cheaper and located at off-peak consumption times (more likely at night)
Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid vehicle has an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and thus two types of drive. The distance the vehicle can travel purely electrically depends on the type of hybrid in question. The term "hybrid" represents a generic term and includes the different forms (microhybrid, mild hybrid and full hybrid).
The ICCB is a device for the communication and safety function in a charging cable, which connects the batteries of electric vehicles and the mains voltage. The in-cable control box is required in the charging cable if the respective electric vehicle is to be charged at a household socket. However, the long charging times should be considered here.
intelligent metering system
An intelligent metering system is also known as a smart meter and consists of a communication module (also called a smart meter gateway) and a digital electricity meter. The system is connected to a secure communication network and can determine electricity consumption and process and store the collected data, thus making it available to the relevant partners.
Inductive charging uses the concept of induction. This means that a current flow is generated by a changing magnetic field. In this process, therefore, a device is supplied with energy, through a magnetic field. This has the great advantage that electrical devices can be charged wirelessly. So far, inductive charging has only been used for smartphones, electric toothbrushes or induction stoves. In electromobility, charging is already being tested on buses in various locations in Germany, which are charged during intermediate stops. However, offering inductive charging also while driving is still in the research stage.
International degree of protection
1st digit= protection against foreign bodies (5 = generally protects against dust, 6= no penetration possible)
2nd digit= protection against water (4 = protects against splashing water from all directions, 6= suitable for IP66 under water).
International organization for standardization
ISO defines standard norms for facilitating the international exchange of various goods. It was founded in London in 1947 and today has its headquarters in Geneva. Today, more than 160 countries are represented in the International Organization for Standardization and the respective standards apply to each member country. ISO standards are not obligatory for companies, but they are recommended, because the reputation of a company can be increased by fulfilling them.
Kilo volt ampere
The kilo volt ampere is a unit of measurement for apparent electrical power and is used in alternating quantities to denote the connected load of electrical machines.
One kiloWatt defines the energy consumption per time period.
100 kVA = 80 kW <=> 125 kVA=100kW
The kilowatt-hour refers to the amount of energy required within one hour at a power of 1,000 watts (= 1 kW). Thus, one kW is multiplied by one hour and does not describe one kW per hour.
Lantern charging is a term for charging at charging stations or wallboxes attached to lampposts in a city. It is a space-saving method that can be particularly useful in densely built-up residential areas.
Load management is the conscious control of the procurement of energy and also an important part of a smart grid. Conscious control enables optimal and effective use of the grid connection. Through load management, for example, certain charging powers can be limited in order to reduce and avoid possible load peaks. There are two types of load management in total
- dynamic load management (= the charging power is flexibly adapted to the various charging stations)
- static load management (= the same fixed charging power is distributed to different charging stations
The load peak describes a brief high demand for electricity. It occurs, for example, when several different machines are started at the same time. To reduce the electricity price, it is recommended to reduce load peaks as much as possible or even to avoid them. This could be made possible by a suitable load management.
Machine to Machine
M2M is an automatic exchange of information between different end devices such as two automats. The process takes place without human intervention and is based on mobile radio. It enables the exchange of information as well as the automated execution of actions. The advantages of M2M communication are, for example, easier planning and fast data transfer or low maintenance requirements. Possible areas of application are, for example, logistics or the medical sector.
Measurement and calibration law
"MessEG" is a German law that replaces the previous calibration law and came into force on 01.01.2015. The law defines the requirement and guarantee of correct measurement results and indications for technical devices. The law is based on the requirements of the MID (Measuring Instruments Directive 2004/22/EC). For the assurance, the responsible party is the respective manufacturer and has the obligation to issue a marking and a declaration of conformity for his products. To achieve this, a conformity assessment procedure must be carried out, which is divided into two different modules.
1. module B (=type examination) and module F (=product examination)
2. module B (=type examination) and module D (=recognition QA manufacturing process)
An ISO 9001 certificate must be available before module D is carried out.
The conformity assessment may only be carried out by notified bodies. For module B, these are PTB (=Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) , VDE (= Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik) and CSA (= Canadian Standards Association). The Weights and Measures Office is exclusively responsible for module D and F. As a manufacturer, you can choose between the different modules. In principle, however, modules B are used for instrument transformers and module D for series devices.
In an mHEV, the electric motor supports the combustion engine in the electrical system and provides a kind of electric turbocharger. However, the vehicle cannot travel purely electric distances with the existing electric motor.
Measurement Instruments Directive
MID was introduced by the European Union in 2004 and defines a basic European directive for measuring instruments of legal metrology. It determines the principles and requirements according to which, for example, the German law on measurement and calibration is structured. The directive aims to standardize EU-wide regulations and product designations, to reduce testing and the associated costs, and to ensure equality in competition through high product quality requirements.
Mobile Metering System
The MMS is a system that uses a mobile electricity meter to measure energy.
One finds this, for example, in the charging process of an electric vehicle.
Metering point operator
The MSB is responsible for electricity metering by operating a metering point between the grid and the facility. The electricity meter is installed, operated and constantly maintained by the metering point operator.
Metering point operation act
The MsbG was introduced in September 2016 and is an important part of the law for the digitalization of the energy transition. It defines Germany-wide framework conditions for the installation and operation of digital electricity meters and smart metering systems and is thus intended to establish digitization in the aforementioned area. Energy is to be used more efficiently due to the law and also electricity and costs are to be saved in the long term for individual households.
Managed service provider
The Managed Service Provider is a person who provides recurring IT services. So it is a concept for outsourcing certain services in companies, to specialized companies. The service is also suitable, for example, for companies that do not have an internal IT department. An MSP brings positive aspects with it, for example costs could be saved in the respective company and also the overall performance of the MSP can be better estimated and planned than without.
National platform for electromobility
The NPE is an advisory body that was founded by the German government in 2010 and deals with the topic of electromobility. The body pursues the goal of making Germany a lead provider and a lead market for electromobility. To achieve the goal, experts from science, politics, industry, civil society and trade unions work together with the federal government.
Low Voltage Connection Ordinance
The Ordinance came into force on 1 November 2006 and replaced the "Ordinance on General Conditions for the Supply of Electricity to Tariff Customers". The NAV is responsible for the network connection, the connection use and the technical connection conditions between an end user and an energy supply company and serves the protection and reinforcement of the end user.
New europian driving cycle
Since 1997, the NEDC has been a concept for a standardized test driving program to check the consumption and exhaust gas values in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. In 2017, the driving cycle was replaced by the WLTP. The general conditions of the test are as follows:
- the duration is approximately 20 minutes
- One cycle is 11 km
- Two-thirds of the cycle takes place in city traffic and one-third outside it
- The ambient temperature should be between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius since 6 hours before and during the test
- The average speed is 34 km/h and the maximum is 120 km/h
National strategic framework for the development of alternative fuels infrastructure
The NSR was published in 2016 by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure and implements part of Directive 2014/94/EU. The strategy framework defines the concrete goals with regard to the development of the infrastructure for alternative fuels and also the appropriate measures to achieve them.
Open clearing house protocol
The Open Clearing House Protocol is an open source protocol and is used for e-roaming when connecting different charging stations so that every person can charge their electric vehicle without any problems. This is to ensure uncomplicated and borderless charging at different charging infrastructures and to further promote electric mobility.
Open charge point protocol
The OCPP is a communication standard that is responsible for the communication between a charging pole and the appropriate backend system. It was developed by the OCA (Open Charge Alliance) and has now also been established as a standard. In addition, it is made available to everyone free of charge. The focus of the OCPP is typically on the control and billing of charging stations.
Orginal equipment manufacturer
The OEM is a manufacturer who does not sell his products to the end customer himself.
Thus the buyer of an OEM product has the possibility to adjust the parts according to his needs and to change the product for example easily and to adapt accordingly.
"Peak shaving" is also referred to as load capping and describes the reduction ("smoothing") of peak loads in order to thus reduce the energy costs incurred.
This can be done either by reducing electricity demand or by using electricity storage as an additional source of electricity, for example.
In the case of a plug-in hybrid, the battery of the electric motor can be recharged and the vehicle can thus cover longer distances purely electrically. The exact distance that can be covered electrically depends on the respective manufacturer.
Point of interest
The POI is a designation of the data that could be of importance to a person in relation to a charging infrastructure. This could be a supermarket or a gas station, for example.
The powertrain is found in a vehicle and consists of the components engine, transmission, drive shaft, clutch and axle differential. It is responsible for the locomotion of a vehicle.
The Proximity Pilot, along with the Control Pilot (CP), is the name for the signal contacts in charging plugs that detect whether an electric vehicle is currently plugged in or not.
Permanently exited synchronous
The PSM, in contrast to the electrically excited synchronous machine, uses permanent magnets that provide a static magnetic field.
It is currently most prevalent for motors used to build an electric vehicle.
PV systems produce environmentally friendly solar power. In this process, sunlight is converted into direct current.
REEVs are electric vehicles that have an additional combustion engine. This can increase the range and recharge the battery while driving. This has the advantage that the vehicle cannot stop while driving due to an empty battery.
RCD circuit breaker
Residual current circuit breaker
The RCD provides the most important protection against dangerous electric shocks and is primarily used for personal protection. In many countries, the insertion of the switch is already mandatory in the household and industrial sector (example: sockets). The switch has the task of detecting a dangerously high leakage current as quickly as possible and then switching off the current flow directly at all poles. It can be found in the fuse box, for example, and automatically switches off the circuit in the event of fault currents.
Recuperation is the process of energy recovery. The process allows energy that would otherwise be lost to be stored and used later. In electric vehicles, this process converts braking energy into electricity. This is also the reason why an electric car "brakes by itself" when you simply take your foot off the gas while driving.
RFID is a technology for transmitter-receiver systems to identify and locate objects using radio waves. A so-called RFID charging card is used for identification and billing at charging stations with a corresponding reader. It is important to find out in advance which RFID card is required for the corresponding charging station provider.
Roaming network operator
The RNO is the operator of an e-roaming platform that enables the exchange of billing-relevant charging data between the CPO and the EMP/ESP. In addition, regardless of the charging pole operating company, billing can be done by the customer's contracting company. Examples of these platforms include Intercharge or e-clearing.
Roaming means that different charging points are accessible and can be used by both the company's own customers and customers of other companies. The term was taken from GSM mobile communications, where people can also use other networks thanks to roaming, even though they do not have a contract with them. In electromobility, the advantage is that users have a much wider range of charging points and can choose from a variety of charging stations in different locations.
Protection contact plug
With a SchuKo plug, emergency charging can be done from home. For this charge, the emergency cable is used, which is connected to the car with a Type 2 connector and to a standard household outlet. In this case, the control and communication is handled by the "in-cable control box" (ICCB). With this system of plugs (CEE 7/4) and sockets (CEE 7/3), short-term charging can be carried out with a standard socket, which is common in Germany and Europe. In theory, a household socket with 230 volts could transmit an alternating current of up to 3.7 kW. In order to protect the equipment such as cables from overloading and destruction (e.g. cable fire), the charging power is throttled to approx. 2.3 - 2.6 kW, which results in a longer charging time. However, this charging power is perfectly adequate if the e-vehicle is charged overnight, for example. This allows a range of 100-150 km to be recharged within an average of 10 hours.
Sustainable development goals
The SDG's define a total of 17 goals adopted by the United Nations to provide sustainable development from the economic, social and environmental spheres. The goals are:
1 No poverty
2 No hunger
3 Health and well-being
4 Quality education
5 Gender equality
6 Clean water and sanitation
7 Affordable and clean energy
8 Decent work and economic growth
9 Industry, innovation and infrastructure
10 Fewer inequalities
11 Sustainable cities and communities
12 Sustainable consumption and production
13 Climate protection measures
14 Life under water
15 Life on land
16 Peace, justice and strong institutions
17 Partnerships to achieve the goals
Semi-public space is a designation for a privately managed area. This is either limited or unrestricted use for private individuals. An example of this is a supermarket or gas station. This is a popular place to install charging stations because it is already well visited and brings in steady customers.
Smart charging is a concept for controlling energy. Thus, the excess energy from a battery of electric vehicles is temporarily stored and only used again when needed. In this way, the energy is used effectively and only when needed and is thus not lost. Smart Charging can, for example, avoid unnecessary costs and also ensure that the maximum energy capacity of the respective building is not exceeded. The concept of smart charging is also set out in the ISO 15118 standard.
A smart grid is also referred to as an intelligent power grid and aims to balance power fluctuations by connecting consumption, storage and generation of electricity. In addition to this connection, bidirectional data communication also takes place. For a smart grid to meet these requirements, data lines are needed in addition to power lines. The smart grid is considered an important aspect for the energy transition.
A smart meter is also referred to as an intelligent metering system and consists of a communication module (also called a smart meter gateway) and a digital electricity meter. The system is connected to a secure communication network and can determine electricity consumption and process, store and provide the collected data to the respective partners.
Smart meter gateway
An SMBW refers to the communication unit in a smart metering system. It has the task of sending, collecting, processing and encrypting the data of the metering system.
State of Charge
The State of Charge is given as a percentage and indicates the given capacity of the battery compared to the maximum capacity and thus provides information about the current state of charge of the battery.
Solid state battery
A solid state battery, also called a solid battery, is a battery that uses a solid electrolyte. The nowadays common lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte in comparison. Advantages of the solid-state battery are, for example, fire safety, a higher energy density or also a longer service life. However, the entire concept is still in the research stage and is currently more of a future idea.
The sationary storage unit can be located in the basement of a house, for example, and is a fixed electricity storage unit. A great advantage of the storage unit is that electricity can be generated, stored and consumed by the user. Thus, for example, a used battery of an electric vehicle could continue to find a use and thus extend its lifetime.
Technical connection conditions
TABs are general terms and conditions of distribution network operators. They are responsible for new and existing network connections as well as for network connection changes. They define all technical requirements for the various connections such as low or medium voltage.
Total cost of ownership
TCO defines the total cost of ownership and is a name for a billing procedure. With its help, all costs for different investments can be identified in advance, and hidden costs can also be identified more quickly. All costs that have been and are currently responsible for the entire life cycle are included. Here, a general distinction is made between indirect and direct costs.
Tesla vehicles, which originate from the previous models and were intended for the European market, have their own type of plug. This Supercharger from Tesla is similar to the Type 2 plug, but the arrangement of the pins is slightly different. This plug can be used to charge at Tesla charging stations with up to 145 kW direct current. At the new charging station model "Supercharger V3", even Tesla's "Model 3" vehicle series can charge up to 250 kW. However, only vehicles of the Tesla Motors brand can use these charging stations. Due to an internal switching of the plug assignment in the vehicle, however, charging is not only possible at Type 2 charging stations, but also at DC fast charging stations.
The Type-1 plug is a single-phase plug for alternating current, where the charging power is limited to a maximum of 7.4 kW. This plug is mainly used in North America and Asia, which is why it is not very relevant for the European market. Due to the low demand in Germany for charging stations with Type-1 plugs, adapters are automatically supplied with cars from Asian manufacturers. This allows charging at common charging stations despite deviating plug types. However, this form is not sustainable because, in addition to the low charging power, no interlocking is possible.
The Type-2 plug is a three-phase for alternating current, which allows the current to flow faster than with the single-phase plug (Type-1 plug). The Type-2 plug was established by the European Commission in 2013 as the standard for charging e-vehicles at charging stations. For this reason, the matching connector is installed at almost all major European manufacturers. Depending on the size of the on-board charger and the charging station, charging can be carried out at different powers. For example, in the private sector, a maximum charging power of 11 or 22 kW (32 amps) is possible with a wallbox. This is very advantageous, as no great technical effort is required to charge the e-vehicle with a Type-2 plug. At publicly accessible charging stations, it is even possible to charge with a power of up to 43 kW (63 amps). However, this is not the rule because, in addition to the cable, the on-board charger installed in the car is also a limiting factor.
V2G is a technology for feeding energy from the battery of an electric car back into the energy system. In order to be able to use the principle in practice, special batteries as well as bidirectional charging stations are required so that the energy can flow from the vehicle battery into the power grid and vice versa. Advantages of this method are, for example, that more electricity from renewable energy sources can be used or that photovoltaic systems also have an increased benefit.
Association of electrical engineering, elektronics and information technology
The VDE was founded in 1893 and is one of the largest technology organizations from Europe. The association deals with testing, standardization, science, application consulting, certification and standardization.
VNB / DSO
Destribution system operators
DSOs are responsible for networks at regional and local level. As a rule, these are low-voltage networks, which are needed to ensure the distribution of electricity and gas to end consumers. The TSO (transmission system operator) works closely with the DSO, as the latter uses the TSO's networks to manage the transport of electricity over long distances. The development of electric mobility poses major challenges for DSOs and TSOs as the expansion of the grid becomes increasingly relevant.
Volt is a designation for electrical voltage and has the letter V as its unit symbol.
The term volt ampere (VA) is the unit for apparent power. It is also referred to as connected load and indicates the amount of electrical energy supplied to a consumer and thus the potential load on a power grid.
A wallbox is a wall charging station for electric vehicles that provides a connection between the vehicle in question and the power grid.
To charge his electric vehicle regularly at a household socket is not recommended, which is why a wallbox for the garage is quite suitable. The charging power of a wall charging station is also significantly higher with up to 22kW, while it is only 2.3kW with a conventional household socket. Thus, owners of electric vehicles have the opportunity to charge their car conveniently and efficiently through a wallbox at home.
Watt is a designation for electrical power and has the letter W as its unit symbol.
The term watt-hours stands for the unit of electrical energy and is derived from time and power. For example, the capacity of a battery of an electric vehicle is expressed in kilowatt-hours.
Well-to-Wheel is a method of analysis found in the field of motor vehicles. Here, the entire impact chain of the locomotion of a motor vehicle is considered. The area of consideration is defined from the extraction and provision of the energy of propulsion to the conversion into kinetic energy.
Wheel hub motor
A wheel hub motor refers to a motor that carries a wheel hub and is installed directly into the tires of a vehicle. Nowadays, this type of motor is mostly seen in electric vehicles instead of internal combustion engines. The reasons for this are that the wheel hub motor is more economical and therefore more environmentally friendly than the rim motor due to the short drive train. Batteries can therefore be used more efficiently and costs are also lower while performance remains the same. However, the engine in the tire is also more sensitive to environmental influences such as water, dust or temperatures than a conventional engine in the vehicle. This means, for example, that a separate cooling system must be installed in each wheel hub motor.
A white label refers to products that a company sells with its brand name, even though the manufacturer is someone else.
Wireless local area network
WLAN means wireless local area network and is an umbrella term for all local and wireless data networks mostly but radio networks.
Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure
The WLTP replaced the NFEZ measurement procedure in 2017 and describes a test procedure to test the fuel consumption and exhaust emission requirements of a vehicle. Compared to the NFEZ/NEDC, the WLTP has stricter test requirements and also a different driving cycle. The general conditions of the test are as follows:
- the duration is approximately 30 minutes
- one cycle is 23.25 km
- the ambient temperature is 23 degrees Celsius
- the average speed is 46.6 km/h and the maximum is 131 km/h
All possible versions of electric vehicles
xEV is a designation for all possible versions of electric vehicles. Under the umbrella term are subordinated the following types:
- PHEV (plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle/plug-in hybrid vehicle).
- REEV (range-extended electric vehicle)
- BEV (battery electric vehicle)
- FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle)
- MHEV (mild hybrid electric vehicle)
- HEV (hybrid electric vehicle)